Thursday, March 19, 2020
syllabus Essay Example syllabus Essay syllabus Essay El Paso Community College Syllabus Instructors Course Requirements l. Course Number and Instructor Information HECO 1322 NUTRITION AND DIET THERAPY INSTRUCTORS NAME CAMPUS AND OFFICE NUMBER Evelin achier, MS, RD, LD Rio Grande No office TELEPHONE NUMBER (cellphone) (575) 642-1850 OFFICE HOURS TO be announced E-MAIL Communication with instructor should be done through the class message system, not through the college e-mail address II. Text, Materials, Links You will need the following materials for the Course: Blackboard MindLink for MindTap Nutrition Instant Access for Sizer/Whitneys Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 13th Edition Purchase your Instant Access Code here for $80. This is the only place you can find it for this price. cengagebrain. com/micro/l-1 MI MKVN B. The course is offered through El Paso Community College using Blackboard format. 1. The student must have access toa computer with internet access. If the student does not own a computer, the computer lab and library computers will work fine. 2. The student must use a word processing program for some of the work. Some word processing programs are not compatible with the instructors software nd if that is a problem, the student will be notified early in the semester to change software. 3. The system information and required hardware and software needed for Blackboard can be found on this URL: www. epcc. edu/DistanceEd For assistance getting started with an online course and technical support, contact the 800-630-8849. EPCC Blackboard Help Desk available 2417 (Toll Free) A. How the course works: Students must arrange their schedule to include computer time to complete and submit the work that is required for the course. Our discussion will include the roles that both the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FAST) and the Securities and Exchange commission (SEC) Till In tens process. We wall also review a sample AT corporate Telling required by the SEC. These filings are required of all public entities; those whose securities are listed on any stock exchange in the U. S. Next, we will spend some time becoming familiar with the Abss Accounting Standards Codification (the Codification or ASS). This Codification Project was finalized during the summer of 2009 and the ASS includes all relevant authoritative accounting literature (GAP) issued by both the FAST and the SEC. The ASS will be your source for all accounting research assignments during the quarter. Your familiarity with the ASS will make you much more proficient in your ability to complete accounting research projects as you begin your professional careers. Regarding accounting research, one of my main objectives in this course is to get you out of your so-called comfort zone insofar as financial accounting is concerned. In most financial accounting courses you have been expected to find the one, correct answer in a given set of circumstances. For example, you were expected to learn the one, correct way to calculate the amount of interest to accrue on a note receivable or payable. Similar expectations characterized your tax courses in that you were expected to identify the precise tax treatment for investment income or charitable contributions. In this course you will quickly learn that in many areas of financial accounting and reporting, as in tax accounting, there is not always one obviously correct answer. As a matter of fact, you may discover that in some situations multiple correct answers can be supported. The time that you dedicate to learning how to perform accounting research in an efficient and effective manner will be valuable to you in discovering solutions to obscure accounting issues and learning how to use the authoritative literature to support the conclusions you reach regarding these issues. The portion of the course dedicated to accounting research will often not be as concerned with the black and white areas of financial accounting as it will be with the gray areas. In your careers, you will quickly learn that there are numerous gray areas in financial accounting. The course will also address various financial accounting topics including revenue recognition, fair value measurement and disclosures, and earnings quality issues as they relate to financial reporting. Revenue recognition is one of the most abused financial accounting principles in that businesses may be tempted to manipulate revenue recognition rules to manage or smooth their earnings. The trend toward the use of fair values in financial reporting is growing and we will review current authoritative literature related to this topic. Interestingly, many have blamed the most recent economic crisis, particularly in the banking industry, on disclosures related to fair values. We will also spend time identifying the factors that contribute to the overall quality of reported earnings and what factors detract from that quality. In March 2008, the SEC began allowing foreign companies to file uncial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (FIRS) without reconciliation to US GAP. Before March 2008 reconciliation was required. As a result, the significance of FIRS will be emphasized in the course. You will be given an assignment on the first day of class that requires you to read and answer questions related to several documents issued by the SEC concerning the use of FIRS in SEC filings and the possibility that FIRS will ultimately be adopted in the United States. The assignment will be due toward the end of the quarter. At that mime, we will examine a under AT accounting topics Ana compare Ana contrast tenet treatment between the requirements of US GAP and those found in FIRS. Part of this discussion will focus on distinguishing between rules-based and principles- based accounting systems. We will conclude the course with an overview of key issues as they relate to ethics in accounting and auditing. I realize that most of you are taking this course as you complete your MESA Program approach graduation. Keep in mind that although the end of your academic experience at Default is approaching, this course requires a significant commitment on your part and my expectations for your participation and performance during the term are high. In reality my expectations for this class are similar to those that your employer will have once you begin your careers. You will be expected to read, perform research, draw conclusions and support these conclusions using the authoritative literature, participate in group assignments, write effectively, ask questions, and, above all, to commit to continual learning. You can help insure your success in this course by setting high expectations for yourself. I can assure you that the level of meaningful input and conscientious effort that you devote to this course will have a significant impact on what you learn. And, what you learn will translate into your course grade. In other words, your level of personal commitment to the challenges of this course will be closely related to the payoff for that commitment. CLASS STRUCTURE: The format of a particular class meeting will vary from week to week. I will spend a number of class meetings presenting lecture material. Other classes meeting will be used for group presentations, either formal or informal. Certainly, in every class I ill attempt to initiate classroom discussions where any and all input will be encouraged and given full attention. Given the above flexible and changing class format structure; I have identified the following list of responsibilities or expectations for you as graduate accounting students in a professional program at a major university. Commit to learning rather than grades. It is incumbent on you to recognize the benefits of learning. If you have not already, you will soon discover that if you are genuinely committed to learning, your objective for making a good grade will almost certainly be realized. This commitment requires that you a make a complete and conscientious effort on every assignment and exam. Commit to your group. A significant portion of your grade (35%) will be based on work you submit and/or present as a group. It is your responsibility to make a conscientious commitment to your group on all assignments. Making deals within a group where a certain member or members is excused from work on a particular project in return for doing more work on another is not what I expect. When you begin your careers and are asked to participate in group projects, I can assure you that this arrangement will not be acceptable. Your commitment to learning (see above) requires commitment to each and every group activity. Preparation. Be familiar with the class material to the extent possible before coming to class. I will provide you with an outline for note-taking purposes on DEL prior to each class when I will be lecturing. Your familiarity with the lecture material prior to class will make learning much sealers Ana wall needle you to participate more Tally In classroom Locutions. You should have ample time to review the outline prior to class. Participate in class. I want to know your opinions and viewpoints regarding the various accounting issues we cover. Oftentimes, students have perspectives that their peers (and l) may have not considered. Your input is essential to the overall learning process. View our class as a learning community rather than as a group of disparate individuals without common interests. In a learning community, all members have the responsibility to not only learn but to contribute to the learning of others in the community. Have a positive attitude. A good attitude about learning will make a world of difference. Provide constructive feedback to me and to your classmates. Our classroom discussions will often involve reacting to the views or presentations of others. Your moments are welcome and encouraged and should always be made professionally and respectfully. Ask questions. Try not to be concerned that your questions are stupid or that everyone else already knows the answers. Part of any learning process involves thinking about issues in ways that you are not accustomed. To get the most from this aspect of the learning process, it is critical to have an environment where questions are openly asked and welcomed by all. COURSE REQUIREMENTS As the discussion above indicates, group work, including presentations, will be significant component of this course. In addition, your participation in discussions in al class sessions is critical to your success. As a result, regular attendance is not optional. In particular, you must be present for all of your groups scheduled presentations to receive credit. In other words, if you miss class when your group is scheduled for a presentation, you will not receive credit for that presentation regardless of how much you contributed to the preparation of the presentation materials. If you discover that you must miss ANY class, let me know before that class. If the class you must miss is a presentation date for your group AND you have informed of your absence beforehand, you may ask me to prepare a make-up assignment to ensure that you have learned and understand the material missed and to allow you to receive credit for the presentation. Any make-up assignments will include an oral presentation. Absent extraordinary circumstances, I will not allow anyone to make up work for more than one missed presentation. Finally, arriving for class on time and not leaving early or during class except for scheduled breaks is a matter of personal and professional responsibility and respect for your classmates and me. As a result, I expect all of you to be on time and I strongly request that you tot leave class at any time other than during the scheduled class break. If you anticipate having to leave class early or at any time other than at the break, please let me know before class. Should you fail to exhibit responsibility and respect in this regard, you and I will meet to discuss the issue. Group Assignments: A glance at the Assignment Table should make it obvious that you will have a number of opportunities to complete group work. The group assignments will include both writing exercises and oral presentations and will focus on assigned readings, research, and materials covered in class. Assignment of students to groups will be made at my discretion. I expect all group members to contribute in a meaningful way to all assignments and I anticipate giving the same grade to all members off group for all group assignments. Arrangements where a group member gets a free pass on an assignment in return for extra work on another is not acceptable and I expect to be informed immediately if this is happening. These arrangements serve no purpose except to insure that not everyone learns the relevant material. In order to encourage the behavior described above, I will ask each of you to complete a peer evaluation twice during the term; once in mid-October and once at the end of the term. The peer evaluation will provide each of you the opportunity to let me know if there is not a balanced effort and level of contribution from all of a groups members. If I am not informed of non- contributors via peer evaluations or otherwise, there is nothing I can do to rectify the situation. If I become aware of these situations, I assure you that I will address them immediately. If I am not made aware of situations where group members are getting a free ride, the result is that participating members are doing more work than is expected and non-contributors are receiving grades for work they do not complete. This is not what I intend and it is not fair for anyone involved. Finally, I reserve the right to reduce anyones course grade up to two letter grades if he or she is consistently rated poorly in peer evaluations. I expect all members of a group to be completely familiar with all aspects of an assignment. For example, when I ask questions following an oral presentation, be prepared for me to address the question to anyone in the group rather than only the individual who presented the information that is the focus of my questions. Group presentations will be of two types: formal and informal. Each group will prepare and deliver one formal presentation. This presentation will cover topics introduced in More Than a Numbers Game. Your groups presentation should mimic a professional presentation or a Job interview in terms of your attire, your presentation materials, etc. Each group should: (a) prepare discussion materials (e. G. , Powering slides) to accompany its presentation; make sure that there is consistency in terms of font, margins, headings, billeting, etc. Articulacy if slides are prepared independently; (b) upload our slides to DEL prior to your presentation so that your classmates have ample time to download them and bring them to class; if we are in a computer classroom your classmates will not need a hardcopy. A Forum will be available under the Discussions tab on DEL for this purpose; (c) assign specific speaking parts to all group members; (d) present (do not read) your remarks in a coherent and co hesive manner; (e) dress in a manner fitting of the formal scenario; your attire will count as part of your presentation grade. If you are not sure what constitutes attire appropriate for these presentations, ask me. On the date of your groups formal presentation arrive in class early enough to insure that you are ready to begin Immolate at ten Declining AT class. As you prepare Tort your Doormat presentation, imagine that it is being delivered too client or superiors at your workplace. My evaluation of these presentations will take into consideration (a) the content of the presentation materials including their quality, accuracy, and completeness, (b) the quality of the presentation itself in terms of the presentation skills that each group member exhibits including the overall flow of the presentation from speaker to beaker which is enhanced when all presenters are familiar with the entire presentation, (d) the overall professionalism of the presentation including attire, (e) the length of the presentation with respect to my directives, and (f) whether your group was completely prepared to begin its presentation on time. I will post an example of the evaluation rubric that I will use to assess your presentations on DEL. Finally, each group must email its presentation slides (with any revisions I suggest) to me within 48 hours after the presentation (6:00 p. M. On the Wednesday following your presentation). Do not post the revised slides to DEL; I will do so after I have reviewed them. The purpose of this requirement is to allow me to make the corrected slides available on the course website in a timely fashion to allow your classmates the opportunity to review the presentation content for exam purposes. Failure to meet the 48-hour deadline will result in a one letter grade reduction of your presentation grade if I receive the slides within 24 hours of when they are due; a two letter grade reduction will occur if the slides are more than 24 hours overdue. For informal presentations, each group should be prepared to lead a class discussion elated to the assignment and share its answers with the class. Evaluation of these presentations will primarily take into consideration the content, completeness, and accuracy of the information communicated as well as the effectiveness with which it is presented. Like formal presentations, all group members should have a speaking role and all group members should be completely prepared to answer questions related to any part of the assignment. With these presentations, you my dress in any way you choose and although I will provide general guidelines as to the duration of our presentations, no points will be deducted for longer or shorter presentations relative to the guidelines as long as the all relevant issues are adequately addressed. Several group written assignments are also required. These assignments are due at the beginning of the class period that they are due. If a particular assignment is due on DEL it must be posted before class time. The assignment of responsibilities and the completion of these assignments are up to the discretion of group members within the guidelines mentioned above related to participation by all group members. Specific instructions will be made prior to each assignment. Keep in mind that for exam purposes, all group members are responsible for the content of all group oral and written assignments unless I specifically exclude the content of one or more assignments. Other: In-Class Discussions: As you begin your careers you will learn how important it is for you to have effective verbal communication skills. A significant portion of your communication Walt toners In your Tall Ana Walt clients will De vernal. As a result, the development of verbal communication skills is given a high priority in this course. No doubt improving these skills within our learning community is an important step award mastering them in preparation for your professional careers. Dont feel as if you have to offer insight related to every topic discussed in class. Effective verbal communication requires that one knows when to speak as well as what to say and how to say it. Speak out when you have something to contribute. Should you not do so voluntarily, I will provide a little prodding. Course Grade: Your course grade will be determined as follows: FIRS Term project Written Group Assignments (likely 4 or 5) 15% Formal Group Presentation Presentations (likely 2 or 3) 10% 10% Informal Group Research Assessment Mid-term Exam Final Exam Total 5% 25% 100% As a rule, I do not give make-up exams. However, I do not object to anyone taking an exam early if your situation prevents you from taking it when scheduled. If you have what you feel is a legitimate reason for missing the midterm exam and cannot schedule it early, you must let me know of your situation before the exam is given. Should I allow you to miss the midterm exam, your final exam will count for 50% of your total course grade. Only in the most extraordinary of circumstances will you be allowed to postpone your final exam. A final comment with regard to grading: keep in mind that the grade of Incomplete s not designed for students who have fallen hopelessly behind in a course and who have little chance of catching up. This grade is reserved for students who are making satisfactory progress in a course and, due to unforeseen circumstances that are beyond their control, are not able to complete the course. Please do not ask me to give you an incomplete unless this applies to you. In addition, do not ask me to assign you extra-credit work so that you can improve your grade. There is absolutely NO chance that I will do so. You have any number of ways to earn points toward a passing grade. Again, there will be no opportunity of any kind to do work above and beyond the requirements of the course. Lastly, I realize that most of you are very close to graduation. Your nearness to graduation will have nothing to do with how I grade your performance in this course. Academic Integrity and Personal Ethics: Academic integrity requires a commitment to complete and absolute honesty in your intellectual endeavors. The University has a website dedicated to Academic Integrity.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Asking for Directions in English Asking for directions is important, but its also easy to become confused when listening to someone giving directions. This is true even in your own native language, so you can imagine how important it is to pay careful attention when listening to someone provide directions in English! Here are a few suggestions and tips to help you remember the directions as someone gives them to you. Take 2nd rightGo 300 yardsTake 1st left at the stop signGo 100 yards the shop is on your left. Make sure to ask the person giving directions to repeat and/or slow down.In order to help out, repeat each direction the person gives. This will help both you remember the names of streets, turns, etc., as well as help the person giving directions provide clear instructions.Make visual notes while the person describes the route.Once the person has given you directions, repeat the entire set of directions again. Here is a short dialogue. A number of questions are asked during this short scene. You may notice that some of these questions are not asked using the standard question form (e.g. Where do I go?), but that polite forms are used (indirect questions e.g. I wonder if you can help me.). These questions are often longer and are used in order to be polite. The meaning does not change, only the structure of the question (Where do you come from becomes Would you mind telling where you come from?). Giving Directions Bob: Excuse me, Im afraid I cant find a bank. Do you know where one is?Frank: Well, there are a few banks near here. Do you have a particular bank in mind? Bob: Im afraid I dont. I just need to withdraw some money from either a tellerÃ or an ATM.Frank: OK, thats easy. Bob: Im going by car.Frank: Well, in that case, go straight ahead on this street until the third traffic light. Take a left there, and continue on until you come to a stop sign. Bob: Do you know what the name of the street is?Frank: Yes, I think its Jennings Lane. Now, when you come to the stop sign, take the street on the left. Youll be on 8th Avenue. Bob: OK, I go straight ahead on this street to the third traffic light. Thats Jennings lane.Frank: Yes, thats right. Bob: Then I continue on to the stop sign and take a right on 8th Avenue.Frank: No, take a left at the stop sign onto 8th Avenue. Bob: Oh, thanks. Whats next?Frank: Well, continue on 8th Avenue for about 100 yards, past a supermarket until you come to another traffic light. Take a left and continue on for another 200 yards. Youll see the bank on the right. Bob: Let me repeat that: I go about 100 yards, past a supermarket to the traffic light. I take a left and continue for another 200 yards. The bank is on the right.Frank: Yes, thats it! Bob: OK. Can I repeat this to see if Ive understood everything?Frank: Certainly. Bob: Go straight ahead until the third traffic light. Take a left, and continue on to the stop sign. Turn left onto 8th Avenue.Frank: Yes, thats right. Bob: Go past the supermarket, to another traffic light, take the first left and Ill see the bank on the left.Frank: Almost, youll see the bank on the right, after 200 yards or so. Bob: Well, thank you very much for taking the time to explain this to me!Frank: Not at all. Enjoy your visit! Bob: Thank you.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Proposal assignment - Essay Example Audience: The audience of this study is government officials and policy makers. The study will help policy makers while making decisions regarding climate change, global warming and Law of the Sea. The decisions taken by the government officials regarding the future of arctic will have implications for humanity. If they decide to protect the arctic environment, that would be sustainable. If they decide to exploit arctic by using ice breakers etc, the consequences are unpredictable. Contents Introduction 4 Statement of the Problem 7 Research Questions 7 Hypothesis 8 Objectives 8 Audience 8 Introduction Climate change has brought global focus on arctic. The ice in the arctic is melting. If the present trend continues, Arctic Ocean would be ice-free by 2050. The arctic is the region around earthÃ¢â¬â¢s North Pole, opposite of Antarctica. The arctic circle includes arctic ocean and parts of Canada, Greenland (a territory of Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland. Among these eight countries in the Arctic Circle, five are arctic coastal states- United States (Alaska), Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark (Greenland). The Arctic Ocean is covered with ice and is surrounded by treeless permafrost. The sea ice in the arctic has declined very much in recent years. ` The recording of extent of ice in arctic began in 1953. Since then, the extent of the summer sea ice has been declining. The extent of ice was the lowest in 2007, the second lowest in 2008, and the third lowest in 2010. . Currently, the snow cover in the Arctic is present for about 200 days per year. A decrease in the duration of the snow season results in increased warming. Between 1970 and 2000, there was a decrease in duration of the snow season by approximately 2.5 days per decade. From the commercial point of view, it is a new opportunity as exploration of the arctic has become easy now. Estimates show that Arctic can contain about 20 per cent of world's reserve s of hydrocarbons. Most of these resources happen to be in the Russian part of the arctic. New trade routes linking the Atlantic and the Pacific via arctic instead of Panama Canal has become a possibility now. So, there began a geopolitical competition in the region to gain control over transport routes and natural resources. All these have increased the strategic importance of arctic region. Countries bordering arctic are also in the process of preparing territorial claims for submission to the Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf. Russia claims a large portion of arctic. The Arctic is highly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. There is greater warming in the Arctic than global average. Because of this, there are concerns that the melting of ice in Arctic could result in rise in sea levels. The current Arctic ice melt might also lead to Arctic methane release. Large amount of methane is stored in the permafrost. Methane is a greenhouse gas and is more dangerous th an carbon dioxide. Scientists are not sure whether this is natural cycle or manmade. Apart from concerns regarding the negative impact of warming in the Arctic, some potential opportunities have come up. Since the middle ages, worldÃ¢â¬â¢s maritime powers looked for a shorter route between Atlantic and Asia. The melting of ice opens up the possibility of two trans arctic routes- The Northern Sea route and the Northwest passage. The new routes will reduce distances between Europe and Asia. It will also provide
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Project 3 - Essay Example In case the tenant damages any property within the apartment, the law provides that it should be tabulated and written down. In case the landlord has any intentions to withhold, the security amount, the same should be communicated to in advance. On the other hand, the tenant has certain rights within the frame work of law. Sec 8-211 provides that the tenant could make repairs and deduct the commensurate amount from the rent. On the other hand, the landlord has a duty to mitigate the effects of the damages through initiatives such as re renting the premises. The law provides that in cases where the lease in question is one of 1 year, a three monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ notice should be given. There is however, an exception in case of farm tenancies that run for 6 months. In case the tenants- landlord agreement is a month to month, there should be one month notice. It is now proper to turn to instances where there is breach or violation of lease agreement, Sec 402.1(a)(1) provides that eviction notice should be given 30 days. However, in cases where the tenant poses a great danger it should be given 14 days. The landlord has the obligation of abiding by the laws when terminating the lease agreement. In this respect, the landlord is barred by the law to take possession of the leased property unless within the confines of the law. On the same note the landlord can only take possession of the tenantÃ¢â¬â¢s property only in case the tenant does not give legal notice on exit. Before the tenants enter any premise, the landlord has the duty to disclose all the relevant information. Within such information should be the right of the tenants, the landlordÃ¢â¬â¢s right to inspect the premises. Within such information should also be the person whom the landlord may direct to act on their behalf. Based on the above provisions, it is now in order to discuss the matters that relate to the case above. It is evident
Saturday, January 25, 2020
characteristics of Thailand Culture has long been a topic of interest in the academic world and has been written extensively on by many sociologists and ethnographers. As individuals from different countries have their own cultural norms and values, there are bound to be some cultural conflicts that occur when people with different cultural background interact with one another. Thailand has long been regarded as one of the most attractive markets in Asia for foreign direct investments (FDI) due to its many advantages such as its infrastructure, strategic location, FDI policies, government support, etc. (Thailand BOI, 2009). Although there are literatures on about the Thai culture and suggestions, particularly to Westerners, about how to adapt to this unique country, little remains said about how foreign workers as a whole can adapt to the Thai working environment. In attempt to shed some light on the matter, the author shall combine data from past researches about how Westerners should react to the Thai culture, along with more literature that explain the Thai society in more specific details. Lastly, the author shall discuss and analyze his interview data set taken from foreign workers in Company X and present a conclusion. As this paperÃ¢â¬â¢s focus revolves around the field of culture, a common understanding about what the word actually entails should first be established. Some examples of definitions have been made by a number of anthropologists. However, selecting from the most popular definitions, the following best describes the meaning of this important concept: Triandis (1994) views culture as interplay of sameness and differences; whereby all cultures are simultaneously very similar and very different. Furthermore, he perceives that as human beings, people share many commonalties and universals, but as groups of people or societies, we exhibit many differences Triandis (1994). However, the author feels that Ogbu (1988) best defines the concept of culture, as he explains, Ã¢â¬Å"[It is] a way of life shared by members of a population, and that it is the social, technoeconomic, and psychological adaptation worked out in the course of a peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Culture includes customs or institutionalized public behaviors, as well as thoughts and emotions that accompany and support those public behaviors. It includes artifacts-things people make or have made that have symbolic meaning. Particularly important is that the definition of culture includes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, political, religious, and social institutions Ã¢â¬â the imperatives of culture. These imperatives form a recognizable pattern requiring competencies that guide the behaviors of members of the culture fairly predictably.Ã¢â¬ (p.11). For foreign workers to enter into Thailand, it would be inevitable that they will come across cross cultural challenges and some culture shock. Culture can have effect on what may seem to be the simplest things in life, such as meetings, greeting, perception of time; but what may seem to be normal to Thais may not be as familiar to foreign workers. This subject is indeed, and has been for a long time, difficult to identify and analyze effectively, as one can dig deeper and deeper into the academic findings and come up with such a variety of opinions and analysis that has to do with culture and its effect in the business world. In this case the author shall choose to focus on the Thai culture, and attempt to aid and produce further explanation to foreign workers wishing to come to Thailand in order for them to be able to better adapt to the Thai working environment. The term culture shock, which was first popularized by Kalvero Oberg (1960), portrays to the feeling of anxiety and disorientation that people experience when living in another country and culture. In explaining this phenomenon, Jandt (1998) shows 4 stages of culture shock: Initial Euphoria: Everything seeming new and exciting. Irritation and hostility: All the focus at this stage is on the differences between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own home culture and the new culture that they are experiencing. Gradual adjustment: When one becomes more accustomed and more comfortable in the new culture. In other words, things become more predictable and there are less unpleasant surprises. Adaptation: The person has fully adjusted and can function in both their own culture and the culture they are currently living in. The first and second stages of culture shock have some correlations with companies that decide to expand their operations abroad, as each company must overcome cross-cultural boundaries Ã¢â¬â named Ã¢â¬Å"psychic distanceÃ¢â¬ according to Johanson and Vahlne (1977). However, instead of companies, this paper wishes to look at human individuals who wish to work abroad in Thailand. Psychic distance has been defined as factors preventing or disturbing the flow of information between potential and actual suppliers and customers, in which examples are differences in language, education, business practices, culture, and industrial development Johanson and Vahlne (1977) (p.24). The connection between psychic distance and knowledge within a firm is that a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s mangers will tend to be more comfortable towards country markets that they can get to know most easily. Thus, they will avoid countries that are more difficult to get to know Ã¢â¬â the bigger the perceived psychic distance, the less likely a company will expand into that territory (Brewer 2007). Johanson and Vahlne (1977) and BrewerÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) are analysis about companies entering new markets, but their notions are still applicable in the sense of foreign workers living and working in Thailand. Much of the problem of culture shock stems from the lack of understanding within a particular country. The more difference that is perceived between the Thai culture and the foreign worker, the more psychic distance he or she would tend to feel against the Thai people. This would inevitably lead to the feeling of isolation, loneliness, or even hostility perceived in stage two of JandtÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) culture shock phases. If the foreign worker is not integrated into the Thai organizational community, then any work that must be done together with Thai workers and foreign workers will not be at its most productive stage, as the best output comes when there is group cohesion and good synergy. The aim of the research is to help foreign workers in Thailand better understand Thai culture and lessen the third stage of culture shock, along with promoting a smoother transition and adaptation to the Thai working environment and working better with Thais. By understanding more about the Thai working environment, along with the norms and unique culture, foreign workers can be better suited and prepared to adjust themselves to a new working environment, and lessen the chances of any conflicts occurring in the Thai work place. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Barriers to effectively adjust to a national culture One main problem that prohibits understanding of another culture is an ethnocentric orientation, which is using oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture as the standard for judging other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008, p.128). As most people have been brought up in a single-world culture, they cannot help but have a one-sided view of the world Ã¢â¬â which is a result of an ethnocentric view that believes that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own race, religion, or ethic group is somehow better or superior than other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008). Therefore, in order to overcome this cross cultural barrier, foreign workers are suggested to have a Polycentric orientation, which is a host-countryÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset where one has developed a great affinity with the country in which one is in Ã¢â¬â or the best option having a Geocentric orientation, which a global mindset where a person is able to understand any culture in the world and combines an openness and awareness to other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008). Understanding a new culture Ã¢â¬â in this case Thailand Ã¢â¬â essentially requires effort from the foreign workers if they wish to get a better grasp and understanding of the Thai culture. However, doing so may be easier said than done. Although in this paper we shall be focusing on foreign workers, some aspects that may help expatriates adjusting to Thailand may have some relations to what other foreign workers may have to deal with. Barsoux et al. (2002) states that the Ã¢â¬Å"interaction adjustmentÃ¢â¬ is the most difficult for expatriates because it requires them to learn the host countryÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior patterns and their ways of communication, along with how varieties of relationships are handled Ã¢â¬â which differs depending on the country, but, nonetheless, also applies to the situation of foreign workers coming to Thailand. This task would be particularly hard to achieve if the expatriate does not speak the local language, as the only way to fully understand a particular culture is through its language (Valdes, 1987). 2.2 Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture Geert Hofstede, a Dutch cultural anthropologist, has been considered to be one of the most acclaimed academic writers who throughout the years has been cited numerously in the field of cultural studies. Through a statistical analysis of questionnaire data sets conducted with several hundred IBM employees from 53 countries, he was able to discover a pattern that indicated national cultural differences and similarities among his subjects; and how such characteristics can be generalized and grouped together to graph different human behaviors and motives Ã¢â¬â best known as HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cultural dimensions. In a preliminary attempt to conceptualize the Thai culture and put it in writing, the author shall initially start with the findings of Hofstede and how he has identified his initial four cultural dimensions that explain each countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national culture Ã¢â¬â in this case, Thailand. In doing so, it should help the reader slowly build up an understanding of the overall picture of different aspects of the Thai culture, which would later be complimented with more detailed explanations. Check again if the ranking of the data is from Hofstede 2005 or earlier Although still important, it should be noted that HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s research can only be used as a general guide to the understanding of the Thai culture. His research does not provide sufficient understanding on how to manage a multicultural organization or gain a deeper comprehension of any particular culture. Therefore, extra literature relating to Thailand and its people shall be integrated into the review of HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in order to fill in more gaps and further explain some of the more specific characteristics of the Thai society. In his most recent book, co-authored with his son, Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) explain the cultural dimensions (see appendix for ThailandÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural rankings) as follows: 2.2.1. Power Distance (PD) High PD countries tend to exhibit a tall hierarchy in their organizations with large differences in salary and status. Subordinates highly respect their bosses and do what they are told. Inequality is expected, and may even be desired in some cases. An example given by McCann and Giles (2007) shows that young workers in an organization perceive their interactions with older workers to be more problematic compared to their interaction with their peers, as the older workers were seen as more Ã¢â¬Å"non-accommodativeÃ¢â¬ and superior Ã¢â¬â making them feel obligated to be more polite and respectfully avoidant in their communication tactics (e.g. holding back their opinions). Moreover, in such scenarios communication is almost always one way (top to bottom), and the manager is always expected to know more than his subordinates; input or feedback from subordinates is seldom practiced and may in fact be seen as somewhat impolite or disloyal (Javidan House, 2001). As Thailand is ranked as a High PD country, the status differences are often large (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999) compared to Low PD countries that have a flatter hierarchy system, in which subordinates and supervisors are viewed as closer together and more interchangeable, but not identical (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). 2.2.2. Individualism vs. Collectivism Thailand is characterized as a collectivist country in which people belong to a strong cohesive group that they believe will protect them in return for their loyalty to the group (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). This type of patronage, or kinship, system is based on relationships between people that revolve around favors and reciprocity that give great importance to kindness and sincerity, in which personal links and family connections are valued to be of extreme importance (Holmes and Tangtongtavy, 1995). Collectivism can also be seen in the Thai peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s belief of social harmony where everyone is always consciously, or even unconsciously, making the effort to avoid any personal conflict with others (Nakata and Dhiravgin 1989; Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999; Knutson et al., 2003), which also fosters and supports the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"kreng jaiÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â later explained. In his research, Hall (1976) made a distinction that characterized cultures to be either Ã¢â¬Å"low contextÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"high contextÃ¢â¬ . Low-context cultures rely heavily on verbalization and emphasis on the delivery of verbal messages Ã¢â¬â expressing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self clearly, logically, and as convincingly as possible (Hall, 1976). In other words, Low-context cultures tend to value expertise and performance, and tend not to beat around the bush (Cavusgil et. al, 2008). High-context cultures, such as Thailand, are the opposite. They tend to focus on non-verbal messages and prefer indirect and polite face-saving style that emphasizes a mutual sense of care and respect for others (Cavusgil et. al, 2008, p.136). Interestingly HallÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is very closely related to HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s individualism and collectivism cultural dimension, which has been further explained by Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) that cultures that have been labeled by Hall as Ã¢â¬Å"High-contextÃ¢â¬ are considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"CollectivistsÃ¢â¬ in HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, and vice versa. Hence, Thailand is considered to be a High-context and a Collectivist culture. This may also help explain why it is difficult for Thai people to say Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ when one may feels disagreement or is unable to carry out an order. Moreover, as maintaining harmony is the center focus of a Collectivist culture (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005), showing bad emotions such as frustratio n, impatience, frustration, anger, or irritation is seen as disrupting the social harmony and is considered relatively rude and offensive (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999; Knutson et al., 2003). Also part of the characteristics of ThailandÃ¢â¬â¢s high-context (Hall 1976) and collective culture (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005), it was found that young people seldom speak up Ã¢â¬â which may have stemmed from childhood as students do not express their opinions in class as much because quietness is also considered a virtue in the Thai culture (Knutson et al., 2003), which is also the case with younger people not disagreeing with older people in organizations (Boode, 2005; McCann and Giles, 2007; Javidan and Dastmalchian, 2009) Ã¢â¬â further supporting Smutkupt and BarnaÃ¢â¬â¢s (1976) findings that any doubts or contradictive thinking in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind are very rarely communicated openly in the Thai culture. 2.2.3. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Broadly defined, people in High UA countries tend to be more emotional than other countries, and are more motivated by their Ã¢â¬Å"inner nervous energyÃ¢â¬ (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). As Thais are ranked as having high UA, one of the ways they reduce their uncertainty in everyday life communication is through their proper use of pronouns and postures to show respect, deference, politeness, and closeness towards others (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999). This can also be seen through their use of silence to avoid uncertain confrontations with other people Ã¢â¬â especially with the more senior people (McCann and Giles, 2007). Moreover, as a result of this high UA ranking characteristic, Thais generally tend not to readily accept change and are relatively against taking risks (Swierczek and Ha, 2003). 2.2.4. Masculinity vs. Femininity Thailand has the lowest Masculinity ranking among the Asian countries, which indicates that they show a low level of assertiveness and competiveness compared to other countries in the region (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). Sriussadaporn and JablinÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) research shows this with their observation that Thais do not truly express their own opinions as much as they deserve to due to their non-dominant and non-assertive characteristics. This may have derived from or have some indications to their Collectivist and confrontation avoidance nature in the findings of McCann and Giles (2007) attributed to the complex Thai hierchical system and their expected respect for the older generation. 2.3 The Thai workplace environment Words that could describe the Thai management style and its working environment, or business culture, are the following: compromise, slow, centralized, seniority-based, relationship-based, conservative, and family-based (Adams and Vernon, 2004). These terms seem very much to stress the maintenance of harmony in the company Ã¢â¬â being non confrontational and accepting the differences of inequality. As stated earlier, Thailand is traditionally a high power distance country (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005), which makes Thai society a segregated one with distinct unofficial class groupings and little chance for mobility across the class lines Ã¢â¬â also applying to the workplace environment (Komin, 1995; Lawler et al., 1995). Interestingly this type of class system in Thailand, is very much reflected in the organization and management of family-owned companies and enterprises according to Lawler et al. (1995). In other words, the need for a formal or set of rules in management may not be as high of a priority as the environment produced by the Thai social system has a great influence in defining the interaction between peer-to-peer and worker-to-worker in a company setting YES ACCORDING TO THE INTERVIEWS. In the largest firms in Thailand, family connections has served as a foundation for building international trading companies and has been a very important aspect of understanding the Thai working environment, which has been characterized by Isarangkun Na Ayuthaya and Taira (1977) as Ã¢â¬Å"management by entourageÃ¢â¬ . In other words, it conveys the concept of the importance of knowing the right people to get the job done and having connections in the right places. However, this concept becomes less manageable as a company grows and requires being more responsible for its accountabilities, more professional managers are needed Ã¢â¬â creating a hybrid of Westernized practices in a traditional Thai family enterprise (Lawler and Atmiyanandana, 2003). In the aspects of companies that are family enterprises, HRM practices are very much influenced by traditional Thai values and their social practices compared to the everyday management theory (Bertrand et. al., 2008). In other words, professional managers in the HRM filed are found to be very rare in family enterprises, even ad hoc, along with HR planning and the systematic analysis of employment issues are found to be virtually absent in such organizations (Lawler et al.,1989). So how are the employees controlled? The answer is through a complex hierarchical class system that has been deeply rooted within the Thai culture (Adams and Vernon, 2004). Ã¢â¬â also conveying that employees with lower positions react to people with higher managerial levels out of a sense of duty rather than according to the rules and regulations set by the company (Knutson et al., 2003). Moreover, this can be seen through the use of the complex Thai language between superiors and subordinates. EXPLAIN SOME OF THE IMPORTANT Ã¢â¬Å"JAIÃ¢â¬ WORDS: KRENG JAI, NAM JAI, SBAI JAI. This emphasizes on the importance of social harmony can be seen with the proper linguistic uses that must be used in everyday life when addressing people of different status (Knutson et. al., 2003). Where English has one word, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ , as the first person pronoun, and one other, Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ , for the second person pronoun, Thai speakers must choose from up to 9 commonly used forms for the first person pronouns, 8 second person pronouns, and 5 third person pronouns (Iwasaki and Preeya, 2005). In addition to these variety of words, Cooke (1968) has listed up to 27 first-person pronouns, 22 second-person pronouns, and 8 third person pronouns, which include language used with royalties and specialized tems used by specific people (i.g. Buddhist monks have specific terms to address themselves and others). This would all depend on the politeness or closeness the speaker wishes to convey, and depending on the status of the other person who is involved in the conversation. Specific uses of language and conflict avoidance are some very specific characteristics of the Thai culture that conveys to the collectivism and high context society explained thus far. If, however, a disagreement should arise, Thais will look for indirect means for their resolution Ã¢â¬â usually through third parties or by Ã¢â¬Å"intenseÃ¢â¬ private talks (Lasserre and Probert 1996; Lawler and Atmiyanandana, 2003). Kreng jai, is one of the most difficult concepts of the Thai cultures for foreigners to understand (especially for Westerners), which has been defined by Komin (1991) as, The concept of time in Thailand is somewhat more lenient than in other countries. Foreign workers have sometimes found this aspect of the Thai culture to be the hardest to adjust to Ã¢â¬â unless the foreign worker himself has the same attitude towards time. Mainly speaking, punctuality can at times be seen as unimportant when going out or having socials with friends. However, foreign workers have found that Thai are very punctual when it comes to meetings and appointments with their superior. 2.4 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The notion that language and culture can be interlinked may not be obvious to us at first, as we, being native speakers, may not be conscious how we say things, and why we say it the way we do in our own languages. However, Jandt (2001) suggests that a person who has learned a second language, or has grown up speaking more than one language, may become aware of the different ways each language allows the speaker to describe and grasp the reality we live in. It is these different perceptions one has of reality that Jandt (2001) believes to be the same differences in culture Ã¢â¬â making the relationship between language and culture resembling mirrors to each other. This relates back to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that says cultural elements can be seen in a languageÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary and grammar (Whorf, 1956). Harley (2001) supports the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in that it shows how a cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s or countryÃ¢â¬â¢s language determines the structure of the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s thought process. That is to say, language affects the way humans remember and the way people perceive the world. If a language has a rich vocabulary for certain notions and concepts, then it makes it easier to describe those ideas in that particular language (Whorf, 1956). Thus, ideas, notions, or things that are easily described in a language must be important to the culture (Jandt, 2001). The two main ideas comprising the Sapire-Whorf hypotheses starts with the first being linguistic determinism, which is the idea that the form and characteristics of our language determine the way in which we think, remember and perceive; and the second, linguistic relativism, which is t he idea that as different languages map onto the world in different ways, different languages will generate different cognitive structures (Harley, 2001, p.81). Although there are studies relating to the intricate nature of the Thai language (Komin 1991; Chantornvong, 1992; Komin, 1995; Knutson, 1994; Knutson et al., 2003), there has yet to be an establishment between the numerous words that contain Ã¢â¬Å"jaiÃ¢â¬ (heart) and the way Thais think and perceive others. It can seem a bit daunting or even a tedious endeavor for a foreign worker to deal with such vicissitudes of the different nuances of the Thai culture. However, the most important aspect to bear in mind is the relationships that Thais hold so dear towards one another, and the mutual understanding one has towards the other person (Komin, 1995; Knutson et al., 2003). For Thais, the heart shows sincerity, and thus so many words are derived from it to express the different feelings one has. In order to test whether or not this may be true, the author has conducted and compiled data set from his interviewees. Moreover, having to express oneself in another language means learning to adopt someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s reference frame (Hofestede and Hofstede, 2005, p.328). In other words, by understanding and speaking the local language, one is better able to understand the national culture. With no knowledge of Thai, a foreign worker is likely to miss out on a lot of hidden nuances and subtleties of the Thai culture, and may result in being left as a relative outsider. One of the examples given by Hofestede and Hofstede (2005) is the subtleties of humor, which varies amongst different culture and is very specific sometimes to one culture.
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Domestic violence victims should leave the perpetrator, who committed violent acts against them is an easy phrase that is commonly used for individuals that has never experienced domestic violence. On average there are approximately twenty people that are abused by an intimate partner per minute, and this alarming statistic affects almost ten million people a year. There many alarming stats about domestic violence, however what is being done for the victims and other family members who options is not as simple as packing their bags and leave in search of a new life. Prior to victims leaving their abuser, if they make it out alive, they are faced with confusing inclinations that may prevent them from finding an escape. Although victims areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Domestic violence is not immune to any community, and it affect all types of people regardless of age, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, race, nationality, religion, and age. 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