Saturday, January 25, 2020

characteristics of Thailand

characteristics of Thailand Culture has long been a topic of interest in the academic world and has been written extensively on by many sociologists and ethnographers. As individuals from different countries have their own cultural norms and values, there are bound to be some cultural conflicts that occur when people with different cultural background interact with one another. Thailand has long been regarded as one of the most attractive markets in Asia for foreign direct investments (FDI) due to its many advantages such as its infrastructure, strategic location, FDI policies, government support, etc. (Thailand BOI, 2009). Although there are literatures on about the Thai culture and suggestions, particularly to Westerners, about how to adapt to this unique country, little remains said about how foreign workers as a whole can adapt to the Thai working environment. In attempt to shed some light on the matter, the author shall combine data from past researches about how Westerners should react to the Thai culture, along with more literature that explain the Thai society in more specific details. Lastly, the author shall discuss and analyze his interview data set taken from foreign workers in Company X and present a conclusion. As this paper’s focus revolves around the field of culture, a common understanding about what the word actually entails should first be established. Some examples of definitions have been made by a number of anthropologists. However, selecting from the most popular definitions, the following best describes the meaning of this important concept: Triandis (1994) views culture as interplay of sameness and differences; whereby all cultures are simultaneously very similar and very different. Furthermore, he perceives that as human beings, people share many commonalties and universals, but as groups of people or societies, we exhibit many differences Triandis (1994). However, the author feels that Ogbu (1988) best defines the concept of culture, as he explains, â€Å"[It is] a way of life shared by members of a population, and that it is the social, technoeconomic, and psychological adaptation worked out in the course of a people’s history. Culture includes customs or institutionalized public behaviors, as well as thoughts and emotions that accompany and support those public behaviors. It includes artifacts-things people make or have made that have symbolic meaning. Particularly important is that the definition of culture includes people’s economic, political, religious, and social institutions – the imperatives of culture. These imperatives form a recognizable pattern requiring competencies that guide the behaviors of members of the culture fairly predictably.† (p.11). For foreign workers to enter into Thailand, it would be inevitable that they will come across cross cultural challenges and some culture shock. Culture can have effect on what may seem to be the simplest things in life, such as meetings, greeting, perception of time; but what may seem to be normal to Thais may not be as familiar to foreign workers. This subject is indeed, and has been for a long time, difficult to identify and analyze effectively, as one can dig deeper and deeper into the academic findings and come up with such a variety of opinions and analysis that has to do with culture and its effect in the business world. In this case the author shall choose to focus on the Thai culture, and attempt to aid and produce further explanation to foreign workers wishing to come to Thailand in order for them to be able to better adapt to the Thai working environment. The term culture shock, which was first popularized by Kalvero Oberg (1960), portrays to the feeling of anxiety and disorientation that people experience when living in another country and culture. In explaining this phenomenon, Jandt (1998) shows 4 stages of culture shock: Initial Euphoria: Everything seeming new and exciting. Irritation and hostility: All the focus at this stage is on the differences between one’s own home culture and the new culture that they are experiencing. Gradual adjustment: When one becomes more accustomed and more comfortable in the new culture. In other words, things become more predictable and there are less unpleasant surprises. Adaptation: The person has fully adjusted and can function in both their own culture and the culture they are currently living in. The first and second stages of culture shock have some correlations with companies that decide to expand their operations abroad, as each company must overcome cross-cultural boundaries – named â€Å"psychic distance† according to Johanson and Vahlne (1977). However, instead of companies, this paper wishes to look at human individuals who wish to work abroad in Thailand. Psychic distance has been defined as factors preventing or disturbing the flow of information between potential and actual suppliers and customers, in which examples are differences in language, education, business practices, culture, and industrial development Johanson and Vahlne (1977) (p.24). The connection between psychic distance and knowledge within a firm is that a firm’s mangers will tend to be more comfortable towards country markets that they can get to know most easily. Thus, they will avoid countries that are more difficult to get to know – the bigger the perceived psychic distance, the less likely a company will expand into that territory (Brewer 2007). Johanson and Vahlne (1977) and Brewer’s (2007) are analysis about companies entering new markets, but their notions are still applicable in the sense of foreign workers living and working in Thailand. Much of the problem of culture shock stems from the lack of understanding within a particular country. The more difference that is perceived between the Thai culture and the foreign worker, the more psychic distance he or she would tend to feel against the Thai people. This would inevitably lead to the feeling of isolation, loneliness, or even hostility perceived in stage two of Jandt’s (1998) culture shock phases. If the foreign worker is not integrated into the Thai organizational community, then any work that must be done together with Thai workers and foreign workers will not be at its most productive stage, as the best output comes when there is group cohesion and good synergy. The aim of the research is to help foreign workers in Thailand better understand Thai culture and lessen the third stage of culture shock, along with promoting a smoother transition and adaptation to the Thai working environment and working better with Thais. By understanding more about the Thai working environment, along with the norms and unique culture, foreign workers can be better suited and prepared to adjust themselves to a new working environment, and lessen the chances of any conflicts occurring in the Thai work place. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Barriers to effectively adjust to a national culture One main problem that prohibits understanding of another culture is an ethnocentric orientation, which is using one’s culture as the standard for judging other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008, p.128). As most people have been brought up in a single-world culture, they cannot help but have a one-sided view of the world – which is a result of an ethnocentric view that believes that one’s own race, religion, or ethic group is somehow better or superior than other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008). Therefore, in order to overcome this cross cultural barrier, foreign workers are suggested to have a Polycentric orientation, which is a host-country’s mindset where one has developed a great affinity with the country in which one is in – or the best option having a Geocentric orientation, which a global mindset where a person is able to understand any culture in the world and combines an openness and awareness to other cultures (Cavusgil et al, 2008). Understanding a new culture – in this case Thailand – essentially requires effort from the foreign workers if they wish to get a better grasp and understanding of the Thai culture. However, doing so may be easier said than done. Although in this paper we shall be focusing on foreign workers, some aspects that may help expatriates adjusting to Thailand may have some relations to what other foreign workers may have to deal with. Barsoux et al. (2002) states that the â€Å"interaction adjustment† is the most difficult for expatriates because it requires them to learn the host country’s behavior patterns and their ways of communication, along with how varieties of relationships are handled – which differs depending on the country, but, nonetheless, also applies to the situation of foreign workers coming to Thailand. This task would be particularly hard to achieve if the expatriate does not speak the local language, as the only way to fully understand a particular culture is through its language (Valdes, 1987). 2.2 Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture Geert Hofstede, a Dutch cultural anthropologist, has been considered to be one of the most acclaimed academic writers who throughout the years has been cited numerously in the field of cultural studies. Through a statistical analysis of questionnaire data sets conducted with several hundred IBM employees from 53 countries, he was able to discover a pattern that indicated national cultural differences and similarities among his subjects; and how such characteristics can be generalized and grouped together to graph different human behaviors and motives – best known as Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions. In a preliminary attempt to conceptualize the Thai culture and put it in writing, the author shall initially start with the findings of Hofstede and how he has identified his initial four cultural dimensions that explain each country’s national culture – in this case, Thailand. In doing so, it should help the reader slowly build up an understanding of the overall picture of different aspects of the Thai culture, which would later be complimented with more detailed explanations. Check again if the ranking of the data is from Hofstede 2005 or earlier Although still important, it should be noted that Hofstede’s research can only be used as a general guide to the understanding of the Thai culture. His research does not provide sufficient understanding on how to manage a multicultural organization or gain a deeper comprehension of any particular culture. Therefore, extra literature relating to Thailand and its people shall be integrated into the review of Hofstede’s theory in order to fill in more gaps and further explain some of the more specific characteristics of the Thai society. In his most recent book, co-authored with his son, Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) explain the cultural dimensions (see appendix for Thailand’s cultural rankings) as follows: 2.2.1. Power Distance (PD) High PD countries tend to exhibit a tall hierarchy in their organizations with large differences in salary and status. Subordinates highly respect their bosses and do what they are told. Inequality is expected, and may even be desired in some cases. An example given by McCann and Giles (2007) shows that young workers in an organization perceive their interactions with older workers to be more problematic compared to their interaction with their peers, as the older workers were seen as more â€Å"non-accommodative† and superior – making them feel obligated to be more polite and respectfully avoidant in their communication tactics (e.g. holding back their opinions). Moreover, in such scenarios communication is almost always one way (top to bottom), and the manager is always expected to know more than his subordinates; input or feedback from subordinates is seldom practiced and may in fact be seen as somewhat impolite or disloyal (Javidan House, 2001). As Thailand is ranked as a High PD country, the status differences are often large (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999) compared to Low PD countries that have a flatter hierarchy system, in which subordinates and supervisors are viewed as closer together and more interchangeable, but not identical (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). 2.2.2. Individualism vs. Collectivism Thailand is characterized as a collectivist country in which people belong to a strong cohesive group that they believe will protect them in return for their loyalty to the group (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). This type of patronage, or kinship, system is based on relationships between people that revolve around favors and reciprocity that give great importance to kindness and sincerity, in which personal links and family connections are valued to be of extreme importance (Holmes and Tangtongtavy, 1995). Collectivism can also be seen in the Thai people’s belief of social harmony where everyone is always consciously, or even unconsciously, making the effort to avoid any personal conflict with others (Nakata and Dhiravgin 1989; Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999; Knutson et al., 2003), which also fosters and supports the concept of â€Å"kreng jai† – later explained. In his research, Hall (1976) made a distinction that characterized cultures to be either â€Å"low context† or â€Å"high context†. Low-context cultures rely heavily on verbalization and emphasis on the delivery of verbal messages – expressing one’s self clearly, logically, and as convincingly as possible (Hall, 1976). In other words, Low-context cultures tend to value expertise and performance, and tend not to beat around the bush (Cavusgil et. al, 2008). High-context cultures, such as Thailand, are the opposite. They tend to focus on non-verbal messages and prefer indirect and polite face-saving style that emphasizes a mutual sense of care and respect for others (Cavusgil et. al, 2008, p.136). Interestingly Hall’s approach is very closely related to Hofstede’s individualism and collectivism cultural dimension, which has been further explained by Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) that cultures that have been labeled by Hall as â€Å"High-context† are considered to be â€Å"Collectivists† in Hofstede’s theory, and vice versa. Hence, Thailand is considered to be a High-context and a Collectivist culture. This may also help explain why it is difficult for Thai people to say â€Å"no† when one may feels disagreement or is unable to carry out an order. Moreover, as maintaining harmony is the center focus of a Collectivist culture (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005), showing bad emotions such as frustratio n, impatience, frustration, anger, or irritation is seen as disrupting the social harmony and is considered relatively rude and offensive (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999; Knutson et al., 2003). Also part of the characteristics of Thailand’s high-context (Hall 1976) and collective culture (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005), it was found that young people seldom speak up – which may have stemmed from childhood as students do not express their opinions in class as much because quietness is also considered a virtue in the Thai culture (Knutson et al., 2003), which is also the case with younger people not disagreeing with older people in organizations (Boode, 2005; McCann and Giles, 2007; Javidan and Dastmalchian, 2009) – further supporting Smutkupt and Barna’s (1976) findings that any doubts or contradictive thinking in one’s mind are very rarely communicated openly in the Thai culture. 2.2.3. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Broadly defined, people in High UA countries tend to be more emotional than other countries, and are more motivated by their â€Å"inner nervous energy† (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). As Thais are ranked as having high UA, one of the ways they reduce their uncertainty in everyday life communication is through their proper use of pronouns and postures to show respect, deference, politeness, and closeness towards others (Sriussadaporn and Jablin, 1999). This can also be seen through their use of silence to avoid uncertain confrontations with other people – especially with the more senior people (McCann and Giles, 2007). Moreover, as a result of this high UA ranking characteristic, Thais generally tend not to readily accept change and are relatively against taking risks (Swierczek and Ha, 2003). 2.2.4. Masculinity vs. Femininity Thailand has the lowest Masculinity ranking among the Asian countries, which indicates that they show a low level of assertiveness and competiveness compared to other countries in the region (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). Sriussadaporn and Jablin’s (1999) research shows this with their observation that Thais do not truly express their own opinions as much as they deserve to due to their non-dominant and non-assertive characteristics. This may have derived from or have some indications to their Collectivist and confrontation avoidance nature in the findings of McCann and Giles (2007) attributed to the complex Thai hierchical system and their expected respect for the older generation. 2.3 The Thai workplace environment Words that could describe the Thai management style and its working environment, or business culture, are the following: compromise, slow, centralized, seniority-based, relationship-based, conservative, and family-based (Adams and Vernon, 2004). These terms seem very much to stress the maintenance of harmony in the company – being non confrontational and accepting the differences of inequality. As stated earlier, Thailand is traditionally a high power distance country (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005), which makes Thai society a segregated one with distinct unofficial class groupings and little chance for mobility across the class lines – also applying to the workplace environment (Komin, 1995; Lawler et al., 1995). Interestingly this type of class system in Thailand, is very much reflected in the organization and management of family-owned companies and enterprises according to Lawler et al. (1995). In other words, the need for a formal or set of rules in management may not be as high of a priority as the environment produced by the Thai social system has a great influence in defining the interaction between peer-to-peer and worker-to-worker in a company setting YES ACCORDING TO THE INTERVIEWS. In the largest firms in Thailand, family connections has served as a foundation for building international trading companies and has been a very important aspect of understanding the Thai working environment, which has been characterized by Isarangkun Na Ayuthaya and Taira (1977) as â€Å"management by entourage†. In other words, it conveys the concept of the importance of knowing the right people to get the job done and having connections in the right places. However, this concept becomes less manageable as a company grows and requires being more responsible for its accountabilities, more professional managers are needed – creating a hybrid of Westernized practices in a traditional Thai family enterprise (Lawler and Atmiyanandana, 2003). In the aspects of companies that are family enterprises, HRM practices are very much influenced by traditional Thai values and their social practices compared to the everyday management theory (Bertrand et. al., 2008). In other words, professional managers in the HRM filed are found to be very rare in family enterprises, even ad hoc, along with HR planning and the systematic analysis of employment issues are found to be virtually absent in such organizations (Lawler et al.,1989). So how are the employees controlled? The answer is through a complex hierarchical class system that has been deeply rooted within the Thai culture (Adams and Vernon, 2004). – also conveying that employees with lower positions react to people with higher managerial levels out of a sense of duty rather than according to the rules and regulations set by the company (Knutson et al., 2003). Moreover, this can be seen through the use of the complex Thai language between superiors and subordinates. EXPLAIN SOME OF THE IMPORTANT â€Å"JAI† WORDS: KRENG JAI, NAM JAI, SBAI JAI. This emphasizes on the importance of social harmony can be seen with the proper linguistic uses that must be used in everyday life when addressing people of different status (Knutson et. al., 2003). Where English has one word, â€Å"I†, as the first person pronoun, and one other, â€Å"you†, for the second person pronoun, Thai speakers must choose from up to 9 commonly used forms for the first person pronouns, 8 second person pronouns, and 5 third person pronouns (Iwasaki and Preeya, 2005). In addition to these variety of words, Cooke (1968) has listed up to 27 first-person pronouns, 22 second-person pronouns, and 8 third person pronouns, which include language used with royalties and specialized tems used by specific people (i.g. Buddhist monks have specific terms to address themselves and others). This would all depend on the politeness or closeness the speaker wishes to convey, and depending on the status of the other person who is involved in the conversation. Specific uses of language and conflict avoidance are some very specific characteristics of the Thai culture that conveys to the collectivism and high context society explained thus far. If, however, a disagreement should arise, Thais will look for indirect means for their resolution – usually through third parties or by â€Å"intense† private talks (Lasserre and Probert 1996; Lawler and Atmiyanandana, 2003). Kreng jai, is one of the most difficult concepts of the Thai cultures for foreigners to understand (especially for Westerners), which has been defined by Komin (1991) as, The concept of time in Thailand is somewhat more lenient than in other countries. Foreign workers have sometimes found this aspect of the Thai culture to be the hardest to adjust to – unless the foreign worker himself has the same attitude towards time. Mainly speaking, punctuality can at times be seen as unimportant when going out or having socials with friends. However, foreign workers have found that Thai are very punctual when it comes to meetings and appointments with their superior. 2.4 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The notion that language and culture can be interlinked may not be obvious to us at first, as we, being native speakers, may not be conscious how we say things, and why we say it the way we do in our own languages. However, Jandt (2001) suggests that a person who has learned a second language, or has grown up speaking more than one language, may become aware of the different ways each language allows the speaker to describe and grasp the reality we live in. It is these different perceptions one has of reality that Jandt (2001) believes to be the same differences in culture – making the relationship between language and culture resembling mirrors to each other. This relates back to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that says cultural elements can be seen in a language’s vocabulary and grammar (Whorf, 1956). Harley (2001) supports the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in that it shows how a culture’s or country’s language determines the structure of the speaker’s thought process. That is to say, language affects the way humans remember and the way people perceive the world. If a language has a rich vocabulary for certain notions and concepts, then it makes it easier to describe those ideas in that particular language (Whorf, 1956). Thus, ideas, notions, or things that are easily described in a language must be important to the culture (Jandt, 2001). The two main ideas comprising the Sapire-Whorf hypotheses starts with the first being linguistic determinism, which is the idea that the form and characteristics of our language determine the way in which we think, remember and perceive; and the second, linguistic relativism, which is t he idea that as different languages map onto the world in different ways, different languages will generate different cognitive structures (Harley, 2001, p.81). Although there are studies relating to the intricate nature of the Thai language (Komin 1991; Chantornvong, 1992; Komin, 1995; Knutson, 1994; Knutson et al., 2003), there has yet to be an establishment between the numerous words that contain â€Å"jai† (heart) and the way Thais think and perceive others. It can seem a bit daunting or even a tedious endeavor for a foreign worker to deal with such vicissitudes of the different nuances of the Thai culture. However, the most important aspect to bear in mind is the relationships that Thais hold so dear towards one another, and the mutual understanding one has towards the other person (Komin, 1995; Knutson et al., 2003). For Thais, the heart shows sincerity, and thus so many words are derived from it to express the different feelings one has. In order to test whether or not this may be true, the author has conducted and compiled data set from his interviewees. Moreover, having to express oneself in another language means learning to adopt someone else’s reference frame (Hofestede and Hofstede, 2005, p.328). In other words, by understanding and speaking the local language, one is better able to understand the national culture. With no knowledge of Thai, a foreign worker is likely to miss out on a lot of hidden nuances and subtleties of the Thai culture, and may result in being left as a relative outsider. One of the examples given by Hofestede and Hofstede (2005) is the subtleties of humor, which varies amongst different culture and is very specific sometimes to one culture.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Gender Differences in the Use of Technology Essay

At the center of 21st century culture is computer technology which presence and use just decades ago, were limited for the government and some institutions. Today, computer technology steps out from such isolation pervading all institutions, industries, commerce and other areas of life at what appears to be logarithmic speed, making its mastery or at least working knowledge an essential requisite if one is to keep pace with time. The ubiquity of technology, continuous rise in the demands for technologically-advanced workforce combined with the application of basic economic principles make one think whether the study on gender differences as it relates to technology is really a matter worthy of anyone’s attention. Statistics say it is. Generally, in a technological workplace, women are still underrepresented: only five percent of computer programmers, ten percent of system analysts and ten percent of electronic technicians are females (Statistics: Women in Technology, 2008). In major companies in Silicon Valley, only 5-6% is led by females (Statistics: Women in Technology, 2008). There has been a decline in the number of females pursuing careers related to science and technology. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the number of women who earned a bachelor’s degree in computer science has decreased from 37% to 28. 4% from 1984 to 1995 (Statistics: Women in Technology, 2008). Female students who took the advanced placement computer examination comprised only 17% (Statistics: Women in Technology, 2008). From these statistics, one may speculate that females’ future career choices still fall along traditional paths. This was confirmed by a study done by Lupart and Cannon (2002) on students’ perceptions on desirable career characteristics and career choices. With the rising demand for high-tech jobs (Statistics: Women and Technology, 2008), knowledge and use of technology become an essential condition to improve women’s participation in the workforce and to enable them to pursue higher status and better-paying jobs in the future. However, the general belief is that not only are women underrepresented in the technology-related industry; they are also considered to be less interested, less confident and less skilled in this area. These three factors affect their usage of technology. Still, underneath these factors, women’s computer usage can be traced on socialization and upbringing. Boys and girls do not play the same games during childhood. While boys are usually made to play video games or games that promote problem-solving, hands-on skills and spatial-relationship skills, girls play with dolls, which tend to develop their value of relationships (Milgram, 2007). Problem-solving, hands-on and spatial-relationship skills are critical to the study of computer and technology-related subjects. As a result of this discrepancy in development, males become more interested in technology and become better-equipped with the necessary skills as they reach adulthood (Milgram, 2007). The males’ generally higher interest in technology, however, does not affect the possibility of improving females’ perception and attitude towards technology. The effect of ubiquitous computing on gender differences was examined in a study done in 2006. Here, the participants were given access 24-hour access to a laptop. Gender differences were observed in behavioral attitude towards future use of computers before the laptop program. Prior to the laptop program, males were more inclined to use computers. This changed after the laptop program. No significant difference was observed in the attitude towards the use of computers after the program (Kay, 2006). Before the program, males were observed to be more skillful in computer abilities compared to females. No significant difference was observed in computer abilities between males and females after the program, except for the skill in programming (Kay, 2006). In central Georgia middle school, the study on 8th grade students showed a statistically significant difference between achievements of males and females. In this experiment, the participants were instructed and given an exam both written and applied on two modules, information and broadcasting. A greater improvement was seen in females for the information module while the males showed greater improvement in the broadcasting module. This study partially debunks earlier findings that males generally show higher achievements compared to males, in the study of computer technology (Hale, 2005). These studies suggest that females’ do not have an inherently unfavorable computer skill, interest, and attitude which affect computer use. Provided with the right tools and knowledge, females may do as well or even better than males (Milgram, 2007). The comparatively lower use of technology by females can be attributed to the differences in perceptions on technology between genders. While the females see technology through its social function, the males’ perspective is more focused on the hardware itself (Brunner, 1997). Males, therefore, are more likely to study more on the intricacies and technicalities of the use of technology compared to females which in effect allows them to maximize its use. Meanwhile, the females’ perspective of technology limits their use to only a number of functions.. According to Milgram (2007), â€Å"[females] are much less likely to retain interest if they feel they are incapable of mastering the material. † Also, males tend to exaggerate their accomplishments while females tend to feel less comfortable even when they do well in tests (Milgram, 2007). The females’ initial lack of skill in technology affects their confidence and perception towards its use. However, like interest and attitude, these may be changed upon exposure. Nicolino, et. al. (2006) measured the confidence gain of male and female respondents in the frequency of use of computers at home and at work. No significant difference in computer use was observed between males and females. Significant differences were observed in the only in the applications used by the two genders. The possible change in perceptions and confidence which may affect usage is evidenced by the study by Wong and Hanafi in 2007. In this study, the attitudes of male and female student teachers in Malaysia towards exposure and use of Information Technology were measured in terms of usefulness, confidence and aversion. No significant differences were seen between the two genders were observed during the pre- and post IT course. Both genders showed improvement in their appreciation of IT usage after the IT course. Females exhibited greater confidence in IT usage after the course compared to their male counterparts (Wong and Hanafi, 2007). Given the males’ higher degree of confidence towards technology, the question now is whether such confidence really translates to increased use of technology. In a study on some 6,800 fourth and eighth grade students, it was reported that males significantly increase their use of technology with age while no such significant increase was seen in females (Barker and Aspray, 2006). It has been established that the males have a more positive attitude and higher degree of confidence towards technology. These, however, are not solely gender-based but more importantly, based on their differences in upbringing, with males having more background in problem-solving and spatial-relationship. Based on the general principles derived from studies on gender-gap in technology, strategies can be employed to address such gap, improve computer attitude, increase computer use and create a culture where everyone can participate and take advantage of the benefits of technology, regardless of gender. Milgram (2007) lists some of such strategies targeting the middle school where attitudes in computer use start to emerge. These strategies include the creation of same-sex groups in classrooms, the integrated and meaningful use of technology, the improvement of teachers’ computer skills, the use of gender neutral softwares, simulation games for all genders, and the discouragement of using technology and computers as a reward. Common among these strategies is their focus on building the confidence of females who often have less experience than males. Simulation games, for example, ensure that not only males are given the opportunity to develop problem-solving and spatial relationship skills. Simulation games also promote hands-on proficiency which is necessary in developing technological skills and use. The creation of same-sex groups in classrooms and the discouragement of using technology and computers as reward minimize the males’ aggressive, assertive and self-assured behavior which stem from their confidence in their skills. In sum, it is by simulating the environment that contributed to the development of males’ skills that the gender gap in the use of technology can be significantly reduced. The fact that females respond to technology more positively if given the right building blocks, as shown by previous studies support this. Works Cited Barker LJ and Aspray W. (2006). The state of research on girls and IT. In J. M. Cohoon and W Aspray (eds. ), Women and information technology (pp. 3-54). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brunner C. (1997). Technology and gender: Differences in masculine and feminine views. NASSP Bulletin, 81(592), 46-51. Hale, KV. (2005). Gender differences in computer technology achievement. Meridian, 8(1). Kay R. (2006). Addressing gender differences in computer ability, attitudes and use: The laptop effect. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(2), 187-211. Lupart J and Cannon E. Computers and career choices: gender differences in grades 7 and 10 students. Gender, Technology and Development, 6(2), 233-248. Milgram D. (2007). Gender differences in learning style specific to science, technology, engineering and math. SelfGrowth. com. Retrieved 27 April 2008 from http://www. selfgrowth. com/articles/Gender_Differences_in_Learning_Style_Specific_to_Science_Technology_Engineering_and_Math_STEM. html. Nicolino, P. , Fitzgerald, B. , Maser, K. & Morote, E. (2006). Gender Differences in Confidence about Using Technology: An Introductory Course. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds. ), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2006 (pp. 3544-3549). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Statistics: Women in Technology. (2008). DeVry University Website. Retrieved 27 April 2008 from http://www. phx. devry. edu/outreach/her_world_stats. asp. Wong, S. L. , & Hanafi, A. (2007). Gender Differences in Attitudes towards

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Domestic Violence Victims Should Leave The Perpetrator

Domestic violence victims should leave the perpetrator, who committed violent acts against them is an easy phrase that is commonly used for individuals that has never experienced domestic violence. On average there are approximately twenty people that are abused by an intimate partner per minute, and this alarming statistic affects almost ten million people a year. There many alarming stats about domestic violence, however what is being done for the victims and other family members who options is not as simple as packing their bags and leave in search of a new life. Prior to victims leaving their abuser, if they make it out alive, they are faced with confusing inclinations that may prevent them from finding an escape. Although victims are†¦show more content†¦Domestic violence is not immune to any community, and it affect all types of people regardless of age, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, race, nationality, religion, and age. Abusers implement system of dominance and control that consist of physical violence, control, and emotional abuse. The abuser behavior usually leads to psychological trauma, physical injury, and death, while the effects can last up to a lifetime, the possibility of crossing to other generations should make the domestic violence a top priority in helping victims find an out. Prior to victims leaving their abuser, if they make it out alive, they are faced with confusing inclinations that may prevent them from finding an escape. â€Å"I would never allow someone to hit me!† So easily said but without an plan rarely done. So many victims assume that their commitment to the relationship is more valuable than their safety and the safety of their children. The lack of self-esteem or confidence for a victim will definitely leave them in a deadlock on the options of leaving. With there being more animal shelters in the U.S. than there are shelters for victims of domestic violence, victims will believe that there is no place for them to go. Victim’s optimism could set the mindset of hope for change that may never come, and this belief could them them isolated from friend and family members. The threats of abuser could freeze the moment of their prey. The aggressor’s behaviors andShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence1120 Words   |  5 Pages  Why didn’t she leave? Why did she marry him? She must have done something to provoke him. She chose to have kids with him and to stay with him. These are the resounding questions and statements that one hears when discussing domestic violence. When video broke of NFL player Ray Rice, hitting and knocking out his then girlfriend Janay, those were the types of questions that erupted on social media. Instead the question should have been, â€Å"Why did he hit her?†, â€Å"Why didn’t he show any emotion or remorseRead MoreDomestic Violence : A Global Issue Essay1179 Words   |  5 PagesDomestic violence is a global issu e which impacts many individuals in numerous ways. To gain a detailed understanding of both the aggressor and victims of domestic violence I chose to exam the psychological and environmental aspects that may influence this continuous behavior that coincides with the continual cycle of violence. I did this, by taking an in-depth look at the perpetrators who repeatedly use manipulation and violence to dominate and control their victims. Additionally, the victimsRead MoreReducing Domestic Violence Essay857 Words   |  4 Pagescomplex problems America deals with each year is that of domestic violence. This crime is one in which leaves the victim (statistically more common a female) filled with fear, anxiety, and shame; feelings that one should not have to feel. Yet as America progresses through time, no one solution has been proven to significantly reduce the ongoing domestic violence occurrence. However, the potential for lowering the number of domestic violence occurrences is present, but first solutions for reducingRead MoreEssay on How to Reduce the Level of Domestic Violence884 Words   |  4 Pagesmost large-scale and complex problems America deals with each year is that of domestic violence. This crime is one which leaves the victim filled with fear, anxiety, and s hame; feelings that one should not have to feel. Yet as America progresses through time, no one solution has been proven to significantly reduce the ongoing domestic violence occurrence. However, the potential for lowering the number of domestic violence occurrences is present, but first solutions for reducing this problem have toRead MoreThe Lecture On Domestic Violence Essay1736 Words   |  7 Pagesexplored the changes and influences of the Domestic Protection Act, 1982 and the Domestic Violence Act, 1996. The presentation put emphasis on the law and systems in dealing with domestic violence. Included also in the lecture, was the analysis of protection orders and police interference. Protection orders are in practice for the urgent safety of the victims of domestic violence. They are applied for through the family court with evidence of domestic violence or potential danger (Morden, 2016). TheRead MoreDomestic Abuse And Domestic Violence1381 Words   |  6 PagesNational Coll ision Against Domestic Violence, a woman in the United States is fatally shot by a spouse, ex-spouse, or other romantic partner on average every 14 hours. Despite these statistics, there are still many misconceptions about domestic violence both in California and across the United States. Domestic Violence is Always Physical While physical abuse is one part of domestic violence, physical abuse is only a portion of the problem. The National Domestic Violence s website looks at a varietyRead MoreThe Postmodern Theory Of Narrative Therapy Interventions1594 Words   |  7 Pagespostmodernism hypothesizing that since reality can be constructed by society, it can also be reconstructed or reframed using language. A major interventions that does this within postmodernism is narrative therapy approach, which can help address domestic violence. In narrative therapy interventions, clients are asked organize their experiences in narrative that puts them as the protagonist of their own story (Dybicz, 2012). By doing this the individual is able to externalize their problem and becomeRead MoreDomestic Violence And Sexual Abuse1478 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature Review Background of Study ​Anger and violence happen at every level in the family, which ultimately destroys the family life, and it happens with couples, parents, children and also siblings. However, females have primarily been the target of violence (Payne Wermeling, 2009). Domestic abuse is often recurring and it signifies that one partner in the relationship threatens the other psychologically, economically and sexually by harming them physically or threatening to harm themRead MoreDomestic Violence Should Not Be A Private Matter1478 Words   |  6 PagesDomestic violence is not always reported and therefore it is difficult to establish precise statistics for its occurrence, however, it is estimated that around sixteen percent of all violent crime is represented by domestic violence. Most of the perpetrators are male and most of the victims are female (approximately 77 percent). However, domestic violence is not a new problem, it has always existed, but before, it was kept completely in the pri vate sphere. As women have become more independent andRead MoreDomestic Violence Is A Coercive Behavior That Involves1184 Words   |  5 PagesDomestic Violence is a coercive behavior that involves a physical, psychological or sexual attack perpetrated by individuals against their partner or former partner. Examples include physical abuse, for instance, slapping, beating, and strangulation among others. Sexual assault includes threats, forceful sexual acts, and use of physical force. Psychological abuse may involve excessive jealousy, intimidation, harassment or stalking among others. In the United States, 20 people are physically abused

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Crucible By Arthur Miller - 983 Words

Reputation in The Crucible In the play The Crucible by Arthur Miller, one of the many themes that stands out to most people is the importance of a having a good name and reputation. Miller uses certain characters outcomes in the play to prove that reputation was actually not the biggest concern. He consistently shows that reputation means nothing when it came to being accused during the Salem Witch Trials because many innocent people were killed. People began to use these accusations for their own benefit and that’s when it became chaotic. These random accusations of witchcraft could immediately cause someone’s admirable reputation to disappear. He provides evidence in the play through most characters that we would consider to have a good reputation such as: Rebecca Nurse, Elizabeth Proctor, and John Proctor. Miller portrays Rebecca Nurse as someone who is gentle, trustworthy, and favorable. Her character is a great example of how her good reputation meant nothing in the end of The Crucible. He mentions in the play, â€Å"As for Rebecca herself, the general opinion of her character was so high that to explain how anyone dared cry her out for a witch - and more, how adults could bring them-selves to lay hands on her -we must look to the fields and boundaries of that time† (26). What would make him provide this description? The answer is because Miller sets up her character as the last person anyone would think to have any involvement with witchcraft to prove a point. In Act 1,Show MoreRelatedThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1269 Words   |  6 PagesAt first glance, the playwright Arthur Miller in The Crucible highlights the historical significance of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692, but in fact it is an allegorical expression of his perception of McCarthyism. If the reader has some background information on Arthur Miller’s victimization as a communist, it is evident that the play is a didactic vessel illustrating the flaws of the court system in the 1950’s. The communist allegations were launched at government employees, entertainers and writersRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1681 Words   |  7 Pagesof their way to the last dying breath to make sure they leave with a good or bad reputation. In one of the recent literature study in class â€Å"The Crucible† by Arthur Miller, Miller uses characterization to illustrate reputation throughout the play. â€Å"The Crucible† takes place in Salem, Massachusetts. It is ba sed upon the Salem witch trails. In â€Å"The Crucible†, we journey through the life of three characters who reputations plays a major role in the play. The three characters are John Proctor, AbigailRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1333 Words   |  6 PagesAs the various characters in The Crucible by Arthur Miller interact, the dominant theme of the consequences of women’s nonconformity begins to slide out from behind the curtains of the play. Such a theme reveals the gripping fear that inundated the Puritans during the seventeenth century. This fear led to the famous witch-hunts that primarily terrorized women who deviated from the Puritan vision of absolute obedience and orthodoxy. Arthur Miller presents his interpretation of the suffering by subtlyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller998 Words   |  4 Pagesmotivated by jealousy and spite. The Crucible is a four-act dramatic play production that was first performed on January 22, 1953. Arthur Miller used dialogue within the characters to cover the multiple themes; conflicts and resolutions, plus the few directions for the different actions of the play. The Salem Witch Trials were intended to be performed as the play however, when read, it can be more carefully examined and broken down to analyze the techniques. Miller, the playwright, uses literaryRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1145 Words   |  5 PagesUnbalance Through The Centuries In Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible, the author reflects the persecution of communists in America in the 1950’s through a recount of the Salem witch trials. It is often presumed that Miller based his drama directly off of events that were particularly prevalent in the years surrounding the publication of The Crucible- which was released in the year 1953, towards the conclusion of the Korean War. Although there was not a literal witch hunt occurring during this timeRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1063 Words   |  5 PagesIn the English dictionary, there are three definitions of the word crucible. One is a metal container in which metals are mixed and melted. Another is a severe test. But the third definition, and the one that I think fits the best for this book, is a place or situation in which different elements interact to create something new. In my mind, this fits because all of the characters had their little grudges and dirty secrets. But when all th ose seemingly little things interact, they formed somethingRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1285 Words   |  6 Pages Rationale, Morality, Stereotypes, Pressure, Self-Censorship, Unanimity, and Mindguards. Groupthink has also taken place in our history a a country. The play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller is about a the real-life Salem Witch Trials that happened in 1692 - 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts. Some symptoms of Groupthink found in the Crucible are Rationale, Pressure, and Self-Censorship. The Groupthink symptom, Rationale, is described as when victims of Groupthink ignore warnings: they also collectivelyRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller811 Words   |  4 Pages While The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, is only a four act play, it still resembles the format of a five act play. The five-act structure evolved from a three-act structure, which was made famous by Roman Aelius Donatus. Donatus came up with three types of plays: Protasis, Epitasis, and Catastrophe. The five-act structure helped to expand the three act structure, mainly made famous by Shakespeare through his many tragedies. Even though The Crucible contains only four acts, it still has the commonRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1052 Words   |  5 PagesBuddy Al-Aydi Ms.Healy English 9 CP 14th October 2014 The Crucible Essay The Crucible was a novel written by Arthur Miller in the 1950’s. It was written in a format of the play, portraying an allegory of the Salem Witch-Hunts led by Senator Joseph McCarthy. The book is known to have a inexplicable plot. This plot is advanced by multiple characters in the book in order to ensure that the reader maintains interest with the material that is being read. The farmer, John Proctor, would be theRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller841 Words   |  4 PagesThe Crucible is a chaotic play, throughout this American classic Arthur Miller takes the reader through multiple events of terror and insanity. While creating a great on-stage play, Arthur Miller portrays his life through the events, the characters, and plot of The Crucible. Using vivid imagery and comprehensible symbolism, Miller manipulates the real personalities of the characters and events in 1600 Salem, Massachusetts to create a symbolic autobiography. Throughout this play, the reader experie nces